Human body produces various kinds of hormones which are derived from one of the following lipid, amino acid, and peptides.
The structure of peptide hormones is similar to that of a polypeptide chain. The short polypeptide chains molecules of peptide hormone are produced in the brain and released into the blood.
This class of peptide hormone also includes:
- Small proteins, like growth hormones formed by the pituitary gland
- Large glycoproteins, such as follicle-stimulating hormone again produced by the pituitary gland
Insulin is a secreted peptide that is stored within vesicles on the synthesized cells. Later it is released in response to high level of blood sugar in the body. Hormones derived from amino acid and peptides are water-soluble and insoluble in lipids. Plasma membranes of cells do not allow these hormones to pass through it and hence the interaction takes place on the surface of the target cells as their receptors are attached there. Peptide production is done by pharmaceutical companies across the world with utmost care. These dosages are exported to various countries to fulfill the demands and requirements of the peptides. There are only a couple of pharmaceutical companies across the world that are manufacturing it.
Prominent peptide hormones
Numerous vital peptide hormones are secreted from the pituitary gland and other body organs. These are the details you need to know about peptide hormones.
The anterior pituitary gland secretes 3 hormones:
- Prolactin: production of milk in female mammals
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone: regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids
- Growth hormone: acts on bone, muscle, and the liver to promote growth and development
Peptide hormones are also produced by several dissimilar organs and tissues
- Heart: atrial-natriuretic peptide and atrial natriuretic factor
- Pancreas: glucagon and insulin
- Gastrointestinal tract: cholecystokinin and gastrin
- Adipose tissue: leptin